Modes d'élimination du fluorure de sodium

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Modes d'élimination du fluorure de sodium

Message par cgelinas » 10 novembre 2010, 13:23

Comme je l'ai exposé dans cette série de billets, l'ancienne ville de St-Romuald expose ses résidents à des niveaux plus élevés de fluorure de sodium dans l'eau traitée.

Pour mieux comprendre les mécanismes d'absorbtion, de distribution et d'élimination du fluorure de sodium dans l'organisme, je me suis tourné vers le rapport "Fluoride in drinking water" publié par le National Academy of Science, en 2006, aux États-Unis.

Voici un extrait du rapport que je vous invite à lire, surtout si vous habitez à St-Romuald et que vous êtes DIRECTEMENT exposés à des doses plus élevées de fluorure de sodium...


    A comprehensive review of fluoride pharmacokinetics is provided by Whitford (1996), and this section presents a brief overview of that information. The pharmacokinetics of fluoride are primarily governed by pH and storage in bone. HF diffuses across cell membranes far more easily than fluoride ion. Because HF is a weak acid with a pKa of 3.4, more of the fluoride is in the form of HF when pH is lower. Consequently, pH—and factors that affect it—play an important role in the absorption, distribution, and excretion of fluoride. Fluoride is readily incorporated into calcified tissues, such as bone and teeth, substituting for hydroxyls in hydroxyapatite crystals. Fluoride exchanges between body fluids and bone, both at the surface layer of bone (a short-term process) and in areas undergoing bone remodeling (a longer-term process). Most of the fluoride in the body, about 99%, is contained in bone.

    Fluoride is well absorbed in the alimentary tract, typically 70% to 90%. For sodium fluoride and other very soluble forms, nearly 100% is absorbed. Fluoride absorption is reduced by increased stomach pH and increased concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and aluminum. At high concentrations, those metals form relatively insoluble fluoride salts. A recent study comparing hard and soft water found little difference in fluoride bioavailability in healthy young volunteers (Maguire et al. 2004). Fluoride can increase the uptake of aluminum into bone (Ahn et al. 1995) and brain (Varner et al. 1998).

    Fluoride concentrations in plasma, extracellular fluid, and intracellular fluid are in approximate equilibrium. The concentrations in the water of most tissues are thought to be 40% to 90% of plasma concentrations, but there are several important exceptions. Tissue fluid/plasma (T/P) ratios exceed one for the kidney because of high concentrations in the renal tubules. T/P ratios can exceed one in tissues with calcium deposits, such as the placenta near the end of pregnancy. The pineal gland, a calcifying organ that lies near the center of the brain but outside the blood-brain barrier, has been found to accumulate fluoride (Luke 2001). Fluoride concentrations in adipose tissue and brain are generally thought to be about 20% of plasma or less (Whitford 1996). The blood-brain barrier is thought to reduce fluoride transfer, at least in short-term experiments (Whitford 1996). It is possible that brain T/P ratios are higher for exposure before development of the blood-brain barrier.

    Most tissue measurements are based on short-term exposures of healthy adult animals. Similar T/P ratios have been found for liver and kidney in some chronic animal experiments (Dunipace et al. 1995), but not all organs have been examined. The literature contains some unexplained exceptions to these T/P generalizations (Mullenix et al. 1995; Inkielewicz and Krechniak 2003). Mullenix et al. (1995) reported atypically high, dose-dependent T/P ratios for the rat brain: more than 20 for control animals and about 3 for animals exposed to fluoride at 125 mg/L in drinking water for 20 weeks. Because these T/P ratios for brain are much higher than earlier results, Whitford (1996) speculated that the results of Mullenix et al. were due to analytical error. Additional measurements of fluoride tissue concentrations after chronic dosing are needed.

    Fluoride is cleared from plasma through two primary mechanisms: uptake by bone and excretion in urine. Plasma clearance by the two routes is approximately equal in healthy adult humans. (Plasma clearance is the volume of plasma from which fluoride is removed per unit time. The rate of removal equals the clearance times the plasma fluoride concentration. Clearances are additive.) The relative clearance by bone is larger in young animals and children because of their growing skeletal systems. “In contrast to the compact nature of mature bone, the crystallites of developing bone are small in size, large in number and heavily hydrated. Thus, they afford a relatively enormous surface area for reactions involving fluoride” (Whitford 1996, p. 94). Experimental work in growing dogs demonstrates that extrarenal clearance, almost entirely uptake by bone, is inversely related to age. Renal clearance depends on pH and glomerular filtration rate. At low pH, more HF is formed, promoting reabsorption. Excretion of previously absorbed fluoride from the body is almost entirely via urine.

    Fluoride not absorbed y the gut is found in feces. High concentrations of calcium in contents of the gastrointestinal tract can cause net excretion of fluoride.

    Fluoride is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, with a half-life of about 30 minutes. After a single dose, plasma concentrations rise to a peak and then fall as the fluoride is cleared by the renal system and bone, decreasing back to (short-term) baseline with a half-life of several hours. Fluoride concentrations in plasma are not homeostatically controlled (Whitford 1996). Chronic dosing leads to accumulation in bone and plasma (although it might not always be detectable in plasma.) Subsequent decreases in exposure cause fluoride to move back out of bone into body fluids, becoming subject to the same kinetics as newly absorbed fluoride. A study of Swiss aluminum workers found that fluoride bone concentrations decreased by 50% after 20 years. The average bone ash concentration in the workers was about 6,400 mg/kg at the end of exposure, estimated via regression (Baud et al. 1978). The bone concentration found in these workers is similar to that found in long-term consumers of drinking water containing fluoride in the range of 2-4 mg/L (discussed later in this chapter). Twenty years might not represent a true half-life. Recent pharmacokinetic models (see below) are nonlinear, suggesting that elimination rates might be concentration dependent.

Ce qui ressort de ces propos est le danger, surtout pour les enfants en croissance, de développer d'importants problèmes des os, notamment l'ostéoporose et le cancer des os.

Pour quiconque habite ou travaille à St-Romuald —où l'eau est fluorée— il s'agit d'informations troublantes qui ne doivent pas être prises à la légère. Qu'importe ce qu'en pense la mairesse Danielle Roy-Marinelli, ce rapport identifie des liens entre le fluorure de sodium ajouté dans l'eau et divers problèmes de santé.

Si ce n'est pas encore fait, allez lire le rapport, au complet!
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